Wednesday 24 May 2017 & Thursday 25 May 2017 – Manchester bombing updates and analysis



This post was written in stages as news developed over the two days and later comments in the post may contradict or expand on earlier ones.


Last night’s raising of the threat level in the UK from “severe” to “critical”  comes in light of the security services  growing belief that Monday night’s suicide bomber, Salman Abedi, who detonated a suicide bomb at the Manchester Arena (MEN) at the end of a concert by American singer Ariana Grande was not acting alone.  The Home Secretary suggested that: “It was more sophisticated than some of the attacks we’ve seen before, and it seems likely – possible – that he wasn’t doing this on his own.” Ms Rudd says she expects the raising of the terror level to be temporary. In the meantime thousands of troops will be deployed to assist police in protecting key sites around the country and the Government’s anti-radicalisation programme Prevent will be increased. The Home Secretary said that the intention to “uplift” Prevent was already planned before Monday’s attack.  Some locations to be protected by the Army include the Palace of Westminster, Downing Street, Buckingham Palace and embassies. They may also be used at various large events over the coming weeks. The Home Secretary said the response was “proportionate and sensible” and urged people to not be “unduly alarmed.”


The use of the Army on the streets will, it is intended, allow police to concentrate on actual policing rather than guarding key sites.  The public can expect more security checks at events, railway stations, airports and so on as a result of the increasing of the threat level. It wasn’t lost on many that Operation Temperer partly came into being in 2015 because of the realisation that police levels had dropped so much under the Conservative governments of David Cameron that they would not be able to guard public buildings at the same time as their normal policing.


Meanwhile, the investigation into the attack continues. The Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police (MET), Mark Rowley, who is the national counter-terrorism policing head, said it was “fast-moving and making good progress. […] However, a critical line of inquiry is whether the dead terrorist was acting alone or part of a group. […] We still have critical lines of inquiry they’re chasing down which has led to a level of uncertainty.” The MET says that it has increased presence across London and deployed specialist officers who are trained in noticing signs of an imminent attack – “to spot the tell-tale signs that a person may be carrying out hostile reconnaissance or committing other crime […] based on extensive research into the psychology of criminals and what undermines their activities”.


Photos: Salman Abedi, the MEN Arena bomber, his older brother Ismael and father, Ramadan Abedi


It now seems that the investigation is working on the basis that a “network”  of some sort is involved in the Monday night attack. Eight people have now been arrested, including Salman Abedi’s older brother, who is 23 and lives in Manchester. Ismael Abedi was the man arrested in the raid on a house in Chorlton, south Manchester yesterday. According to Reuters, Abedi’s younger brother, Hashem Abedi, and his father, Ramadan Abedi have been arrested in  Libya. The brother is said to have been arrested on suspicion of having links with the Islamic State and according to a Libyan official he knew “all the deetails” of the attack. A man has been arrested in Wigan “carrying a package” and an unidentified woman and man have  been arrested at different locations and two men were arrested on Thursday morning in Withington in Greater Manchester.   Reports out of Libya suggest that Salman Abedi had been in touch with his family in Libya earlier this month and that Ramadan Abedi, his father, had “transferred funds” to his son. The BBC World Service and the Independent reported that a Libyan Government official said that  he rang his mother shortly before he exploded his suicide bomb, asking for forgiveness. The arrests in Libya has effectively shifted the focus of the investigation to Libya.


The Greater Manchester Police (GMP) chief constable said: “I think it’s very clear that this is a network that we are investigating. And as I’ve said, it continues at a pace. There’s extensive investigations going on and activity taking place across Greater Manchester, as we speak.” It is not unusual for police to round up family members of a terrorist and does not necessarily  indicate if they are connected to the attack or to Salman Abedi’s radicalisation in any way.  Several people are reported to have reported Abedi’s violent views to the anti-terrorist hotline several years ago, which may be what was being referred to after the attack when it was said that the security services had been aware of Abedi before the attack.


According to Dominic Casciani, writing for the BBC,  suggests that the reason the UK hasn’t seen a suicide bombing since those in London in July 2005 is because:


1. It takes some expertise, which is difficult to come by without help.


2. It requires a lot of planning and preparation, both of which increase the chances that MI5 and other agencies will discover what is going on.


3. Individuals who are sufficiently organised to put the first two together and determined enough to see the plan through to its awful conclusion are very rare.


He says that many inspire to make bombs and become “martyrs” but few in reality are capable of carrying out such an attack. He argues that many are just too stupid to do so while others don’t cover their tracks well enough to avoid detection ahead of an attack. “Most jihadists discount a bomb attack at the early stages: they realise that it’s too difficult to pull off. They might accidentally kill themselves while making the device.” Suspicions can be raised if someone is buying materials that are required for a bomb, perhaps prompting MI5 to begin looking at them closely. They may rely on the help of someone who is known to the security services. Whatever the complications and risk, many opt for an easier and less risk-laden route – using knives, guns or vehicles. All three have been used in recent attacks around the world.


The complexity of the planning required to build a bomb and carry out a plot undetected suggests that Abedi had support of some sort.  The sophistication of the bomb also adds to the suspicion that he had help. The use of nails and bolts in the Manchester Arena bomb is similar to bombs used by al-Qaeda and its offshoots.  Reports suggest that Abedi has had radical views for some years and that he has been to Libya on more than one occasion and was there only days ago. This also suggests involvement from others, even if that is only in his radicalisation – possibly in Libya. Abedi’s parents are from Libya, though Salman himself was born in Manchester in 1994. It is possible that Abedi’s bomb may have used a sophisticated recipe that is widely circulated among extremists, but this needs to be confirmed by experts who will examine the remains of the bomb in Manchester. If proven to be the case, this is damning circumstantial evidence that Abedi has contact with other extremists.  DIY bombs are hard to hide. “For instance, the 7/7 devices contained a chemical that bleached the hair of one of the bomb-makers. The fumes can kill plants.”


He will also have had to research and teach himself how to buy the bomb-making materials and construct the bomb. This isn’t easy.  Despite what people may think it is difficult to find guides on the internet. WARNING: IT IS A CRIMINAL OFFENCE TO EVEN POSSESS SUCH INFORMATION.   He would have needed time, which only increases the chances of detection.  The odds of achieving all this alone without any outside support make it more likely he had help. If Abedi was working alone he has been either incredibly clever or incredibly lucky to have gone undetected.


On Thursday, Mike McCaul, chair of the homeland security committee in the United States says the bomb at Manchester contained triacetone triperoxide (TATP) explosives – which was used in both the Paris attacks in November 2015 and Brussels attack in March 2016. He also said that Salman Abedi  was not a “lone-wolf.”  He said the “level of sophistication” of the bomb implied Abedi had foreign training. He described TATP as a “classic explosive device used by terrorists,” and that it is well known to Islamic State extremists.  It is made of household chemicals and was also used in the London transport bombings in 2005. Mr McCaul says the evidence so far indicates “we’re not dealing with a lone-wolf situation.”


The Guardian reported on Thursday more on the bomb: “Also recovered at the scene was a Yuasa 12-volt, 2.1 amp lead-acid battery. The detonator appeared to have a small circuit board soldered inside one end. The pictures indicate it was carried in a blue rucksack made by the Karrimor outdoor company. Nuts and bolts were packed around the bomb. Such was the power of the blast it generated that fragments of metal penetrated doors and walls of the arena. Nuts and bolts were removed from the bodies of survivors during surgeries. Abedi was standing in the middle of a crowd when he detonated his explosive. The upper part of his body was thrown towards the entrance to the arena by the blast.”


The investigation will of course be aware of all this information and will be using it to generate leads to investigate. It will also be investigating whether Abedi was connected with a terror cell that included Mohamad Abrini“the man in the hat” (below, in hat) – who had connections with both the Paris and Brussels attacks. Abrini was known to have visited Manchester in 2015. The investigation may also be looking if there is any connection with Jamal al-Harith, (below right) a former British Guantanamo Bay detainee who became a suicide bomber at at military base in Iraq this February.

Brussels_suspects_CCTVJamal al-Harith

The growing complexity of the investigation will mean that it is likely to take weeks or even months before we know the full extent of the background to the attack.  The investigation has spread out in many directions from central Manchester to Libya.  This in itself will add a great deal of complexity. After the London 2005 suicide bombings MI5 and the Police had six intelligence leads at one point that all featured the eventual identified ringleader. Since then things have been reorganised to enable greater sharing, creating “powerful regional hubs that share intelligence like never before.”  The increase in workload in recent years – with some 18 plots foiled since 2013 – every single of piece of information entering the system has to be analysed and compared to existing intelligence for links and patterns – to look for “credible and actionable” intelligence. Manchester is currently known as “Priority 1”  by the MI5 because there is that credible and actionable intelligence of a further imminent attack. “If security chiefs think there may be a bomb-maker on the loose – as is the case at the moment – they will be throwing everything at it.”  MI5 also look into other areas of counter-terrorism, some or all of which may become relevant in the Manchester investigation: Those planning to fight overseas;  fundraisers, suspects training in the UK, and people involved in false documents; people of concern who need to be further checked out; and people who were previously a threat with a risk of “re-engagement.”


The investigation is yet to answer the important question of how the bomber Salman Abedi managed to avoid detection. It is known that members of the Muslim community reported his views to the anti-terrorism hotline and that he was known to the security services as a person of interest. For whatever reason, priority was not given to him. MI5 may review whether there was any credible and actionable intelligence on him that was missed to suggest he was planning an attack or involved in terrorist activities.  Overlooking Abedi may have simply been from the fact that no credible intelligence was available, but MI5 and the investigation will be under pressure to explain why he did get through MI5 suspicion to carry out a terror attack.


Almost immediately after the bombing, fundraising efforts began to raise money for the families and victims of the attack. The Manchester Evening News began an appeal and raised £1.1m in just 24 hours. That money has been added to the British Red Cross We Love Manchester Emergency Fund.” This has been added to by substantial donations from Manchester City footballer Yaya Toure who donated £100,000, the British Red Cross who began the fund with £50,000, actor Tom Hardy (£7,500), the Wayne Rooney Foundation (£100,000), the Arsenal Foundation (£50,000), Manchester-based Co-Op (£100,000), and The Sun newspaper (£10,000). Tattooists in the city and around the world are donating £50 for every bee they tattoo – a symbol of Manchester. The British Red Cross fund was set up with support from Manchester City Council. The British Red Cross chief executive, Mike Adamson, said:


“We have been moved by the compassionate response to this appeal for victims and their families.


“People from communities across the UK and right around the world are showing their solidarity by donating.


“The money raised will contribute to those affected by this terrible attack getting the help that they need today, tomorrow and into the future”.


Other individuals and groups are organising their own fundraising. These include Muslims For Manchester who have set a target of £100,000. They have so far raised £15,000. Comedian Russell Brand donated the proceeds of a sold-out gig in Southport to the cause, while fellow-comedian Al Murray had a whip-round at Southend Cliffs Pavilion yesterday and promised to match what was donated.

ariana grande

The singer Ariana Grande (above), whose concert was the target of the suicide bombing on Monday, has announced that her planned concerts at London’s O2 Arena on Thursday and Friday have been cancelled. She announced that her Dangerous Woman world tour has been suspended until 7 June. A statement issued on her behalf said that she wished to pay “proper respects to those lost.”  The statement continued:  “We ask at this time that we all continue to support the city of Manchester and all those families affected by this cowardice and senseless act of violence. Our way of life has once again been threatened but we will overcome this together.”   The singer has now returned to her home in the United States and hopes to resume her tour in Paris.  The dates cancelled are: London (O2 Arena, 25 May), London (02 Arena, 26 May), Antwerp, Belgium (Sportplais, 28 May), Lodz, Poland (Atlas Arena, 31 May), Lodz (Atlas Arena, 1 June), Frankfurt, Germany (Festhalle, 3 June), and Zurich, Switzerland (Hallenstadion, 5 June).


Meanwhile, Ariana’s manager Scooter Braun has paid his own tribute to the victims of the Manchester bombing.  Here are a series of tweets he posted:


“Tonight I got home and took my parents out to dinner. Korean BBQ. We drank and ate and laughed with the tables next to us. I experienced joy for the first time in days. And I remembered… we are free. We are all different but we are free to enjoy each other’s company.


“I will honour those that are lost by living each day full. Full of fun, full of laughter, full of joy. I welcome the differences of my neighbour.”


“The wish of terrorism is to take away that feeling of freedom and joy. No. That is my answer. No. We cant allow it. Fear cannot rule the day.”


“More people die each year from car crashes then terrorism. Yet I will get in my car. I will choose to live than to be afraid.”


“So… Manchester I stand with you. Jakarta I stand with you. Children of Syria I stand with you. We will honour you by not giving in to the darkness.”


“And I will honour all of you by laughing loving and living. Living full for every wonderful innocent child whose life was taken to soon.”


“So if you think you scared us, if you think your coward[ly] act made us change how we live… sorry. All you did was make us appreciate every day.”


“With extraordinary evil we must fight with extraordinary greatness. Fight on. Goodnight world. Tomorrow I live full.”


“I will honour all of u by laughing loving and living. Living full for every wonderful innocent child whose life was taken too soon.”


“Am I angry? Hell yes. But how will we respond? With everything you think you took from us… love and joy and life.”


Ariana isn’t the only musician to cancel their planned concerts in the wake of the Manchester bombing. Take That cancelled a concert set for Liverpool last night “out of respect to all of the people and their families that were affected by the horrific incident last night.”  Blondie also cancelled their London gig planned for Wednesday.  However, other musicians and bands performed as planned. These were led by Simple Minds – one of my favourite bands – who played at Manchester’s Bridgewater Hall on Tuesday – the biggest concert in the city last night.  Their lead singer said that he thought it would be “cowardly” not to appear – “We would have felt cowardly just leaving town.” The singer made a speech to the crowd before the concert began:


“This morning when we woke there was a decision to be made – do we play or do we cancel and leave town?


“I’m sure if we had done that, everybody would have understood. But we would have felt cowardly.


“When we went through the band and spoke to the crew, everybody wanted to play. There was no doubt about that


“Take one minute to meditate and we’ll play a bit of music and think of the victims of last night and their families”.


Not everyone was ready to go to the gig, with several hundred of the 2,300 ticket holders not turning up.  Some were critical of the band’s decision to perform less than 24 hours after the attack. Here are some of the comments made on social media, both for and against the concert going ahead:


Andrew Sturgess: “Sadly wont be going. Tried to reason for going all day. I can understand both sides. But too soon and too close for me.”


Lindsay Hunt: “Can’t believe this concert is going ahead. Too soon. Our seats will be empty as my kids are still in shock after last night’s events.”


Diane Barber: “We are very saddened, but then we feel we’ve got to come. It would be too easy not to come. It’s been hard. But we have to. That’s the thing about Manchester – it’s very strong. It’s hard to come, but why should we let these people beat us?”


Gil: “We should keep on with life, keep doing what we’re doing. I did have hesitations. I’ve got children at home and I didn’t want them worrying that we’re in town. But I wanted to also show them that we don’t give in to these violent, evil people and we carry on doing our best to keep supporting the arts and the city and businesses and life.”


Ray Collins: “I know it was an extremely sad and sadistic thing that happened last night… and people may have doubts about Simple Minds with the way they’re carrying on with their concert, but I think that’s standing up for our values. There’s fright but we’ve got to be strong as well.”


Also in Manchester, Broken Social Scene performed at the Albert Hall, and the audience got a surprise when they were joined by former Smiths’ guitarist Johnny Marr. The Courteeners, supported by The Charlatans and Blossoms, will perform at Old Trafford. Liam Fray of The Courteeners said: “This will hurt. For a long time. But as you walk around town today try not to bow your head. Look up at the skies. We’ll see you on Saturday.”


The British Government is said to be “furious” after photographs of the forensic evidence in the Manchester bombing, including the photo above of what is thought to be the detonator of Salem Abedi’s suicide bomb, was leaked to the New York Times.  The Prime Minister, Theresa May, is said to be going to address the issue directly with President Trump. A Whitehall spokesman said:


“We are furious. This is completely unacceptable. These images leaked from inside the US system will be distressing for victims, their families and the wider public. The issue is being raised at every relevant level by the British authorities with their US counterparts.”


Meanwhile, the Mayor of Greater Manchester, Andy Burnham, added his concerns at the US leaking:


“It troubles me On Monday evening when the reports were first coming through me, I agreed with the chief constable and others we would take a cautious approach to putting public information out because we wouldn’t want to get anything wrong or compromise the police investigation. And yet the first reporters were coming seemingly out the United States.  So that is concerning because obviously you want international cooperation when it comes to sharing of information because vents like this can have that broader dimension.


“But it worries me greatly and in fact I made known my concerns about it to the US ambassador. It’s not acceptable to me that you know here there is a live investigation taking place, we cannot have information being put in the public domain that’s not in the direct control of the British police and security services.”


The National Police Chiefs’ Council said via its counter-terrorism policing spokesman:


“We greatly value the important relationships we have with our trusted intelligence, law enforcement and security partners around the world. These relationships enable us to collaborate and share privileged and sensitive information that allows us to defeat terrorism and protect the public at home and abroad.


“When that trust is breached it undermines these relationships, and undermines our investigations and the confidence of victims, witnesses and their families. This damage is even greater when it involves unauthorised disclosure of potential evidence in the middle of a major counter terrorism investigation.”


The outrage generated by the leaking of forensic photos from the MEN Arena bombing scene to the New York Times has prompted the UK police investigation to stop sharing information with the United States authorities. The leaks, which included the bomber’s name, began just hours after the attack on Monday night and were said to have come from within the “US system.” Theresa May today will meet Donald Trump at the Nato summit in Brussels and will bring up the matter. The withholding of intelligence will only apply to the Manchester bombing investigation. Downing Street says it was not involved in the decision and stressed the independence of police decisions. A Downing Street spokesman said: “This is an operational matter for police.”


Sharing intelligence has  been normal practice since the signing of the Five Eyes intelligence sharing agreement, which sees the UK, US, Australia, Canada and New Zealand sharing intelligence. All the MEN investigation intelligence is passed to the National Counter Terrorism service which then shares it under the Five Eyes agreement. The BBC’s correspondent Gordon Corera, who reports on security, believes that it is more likely the leak came from US law enforcement rather than from the White House. Whitehall said the leak of the photographs was “on another level” and that it had caused “disbelief and astonishment” across the UK Government.


Dominic Casciani, the BBC Home Affairs Correspondent, wrote on Thursday: ”That system is based on trust and the ‘control principle’: if a piece of intelligence is shared, the receiving nation has no right to further disseminate it without permission. The UK’s National Police Chiefs’ Council described the ‘unauthorised disclosure’ as a breach of trust which had potentially undermined a ‘major counter-terrorism investigation’.”


The release of information prematurely can threaten an investigation. Traditionally a period of 36 hours is allowed before considering releasing information to give investigators time to follow up leads without being compromised by their activities being leaked to the media or online.  Sadly, the US also leaked information after the July 2005 London bombings – the last occasion the UK experienced suicide bombers before this week’s attack.  Lord Blair, who was head of the MET then, said yesterday:  “I’m afraid it just reminds me exactly of what happened after 7/7 when the US published a complete picture of the way the bombs in 7/7 had been made up. It’s a different world in which the US operate in terms of how they publish things and this is a very grievous breach but I’m afraid it’s the same as before.”


Lord Carlile, the former independent reviewer of terrorism, said: “Photos of the backpack after the event could be of utility to future bomb-makers, for obvious reasons. Also, it damages decades of confidence between the UK and US services, the cohesion of the ‘Five Eyes’ group, and sharing of information with French, German and other security services. These leaks made yesterday a very bad day for national security in several countries, and those responsible should be called to account.”


Nato’s secretary general, Jens Stoltenberg, commenting on the leaks ahead of Thursday’s Nato summit in Brussels, said: “Sharing intelligence is of great importance. Sharing intelligence is based on trust and we have seen in Nato over many, many years that we have been able to share intelligence in a good way and that has been of great importance to the alliance and for all allies.” He added that he “did not know what actually happened” so couldn’t comment further. He added that it was “a bilateral issue between the US and the UK.”


President Trump has often complained about leaks of information in his own administration, so this incident could be embarrassing for the President – especially if it is shown the leaks came from the White House.


The leaked information in the New York Times shows, as reported in The Guardian, “Abedi had carried a metal box containing ‘well packed’ explosives, metal nuts and screws in a box probably inside a Karrimor rucksack, the leaked details showed. The device was powerful enough for shrapnel to penetrate metal doors and to scar brick walls. Abedi detonated the bomb with his left hand. It showed the force of the explosion was such that his torso was ripped from the rest of his body and propelled across the foyer and that most of those killed were in a circle around the bomber.”


The President later Thursday afternoon, speaking before the Nato summit in Brussels, talking about the leaks of information and photograph related to the MEN Arena bombing:  “The alleged leaks coming out of government agencies are deeply troubling.” He added: “The leaks of sensitive information pose a grave threat to our national security.”  He has ordered a review, saying:  “I am asking the Department of Justice and other relevant agencies to launch a complete review of this matter, and, if appropriate, the culprit should be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.” The British Prime Minister, Theresa May, had brought up the issue with the President. Mr Trump said that leaks “have been going on for a long time,” referring also to the problems he has with leaks in his administration.  Perhaps trying to deflect the anger felt by the British Government over the leaks, the President said: “There is no relationship we cherish more than the special relationship between the US and the UK.”  The President talked more about the Manchester attack, which he said showed the “depths  of the evil face with terrorism”:


“Innocent little girls and so many others were horribly murdered and badly injured whilst attending a concert.


“Beautiful lives with so much great potential, torn from their families for ever and ever. It was a barbaric and vicious attack upon our civilisation.


“All people who cherish life must unite in finding, exposing and removing these killers and extremists, and yes, losers, they are losers.


“Wherever they exist in our societies we must drive them out and never, ever let them back in.”


To support the so-called Special Relationship between the United States and United Kingdom,  US Secretary of State Rex W. Tillerson is going to visit London on Friday and will meet with British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson. The Foreign Office said of the meeting, it is being held “in an expression of U.K.-U.S. solidarity following the terrorist attack in Manchester earlier this week.” The statement continued that the  two men “will write messages of condolence for the victims  of the attack and hold talks on a range of foreign policy issues.”


Meanwhile, the New York Times, who published the forensic photographs from Manchester, defended their decision – saying the photos published were  “neither graphic nor disrespectful of victims”. The paper’s full statement read:


“The images and information presented were neither graphic nor disrespectful of victims, and consistent with the common line of reporting on weapons used in horrific crimes, as The Times and other media outlets have done following terrorist acts around the world, from Boston to Paris to Baghdad, and many places in between.


“Our mission is to cover news and inform our readers. We have strict guidelines on how and in what ways we cover sensitive stories. Our coverage of Monday’s horrific attack has been both comprehensive and responsible.


“We cover stories about terrorism from all angles. Not only stories about victims but also how terrorist groups work, their sources of funding, how they recruit. Acts of terrorism have tremendous impact on how we live, on how we are governed and how we interact as people, communities and nations. At times the process of reporting this coverage comes at personal risk to our reporters. We do it because it is core to our mission.”


According to Anthony Zurcher, the BBC’s North American reporter, there is likely two reasons the information was leaked. Firstly, someone may simply be trying to “gain favour” with a reporter or boost his reputation as a “knowledgeable insider.” The second could be more significant. He says that someone within the US government may be using the leaks to put pressure on the UK “to take more aggressive steps of its own to address what Mr Trump in the past has termed radical Islamic terrorism.’’ In the meantime, the intelligence relationship with the United States has been damaged and intelligence relating to the Manchester bombing will no longer be shared with the US intelligence community.

Screenshot_6 Screenshot_7

And finally for this two-day post, the Queen visited Manchester on Thursday, going to the Manchester Children’s Hospital to meet the injured and members of the emergency services. She paid tribute to the “extraordinary”  way the city has come together after Monday’s bombing. Of the attack she said: “It’s dreadful. Very wicked, to target that sort of thing The awful thing was that everyone was so young. The age of them.”  Earlier, at 11am, a minute’s silence was observed across the city (below) being broken at its conclusion with cheers and applause and a spontaneous rendition by the crowds of the Oasis song “Don’t Look Back In Anger.”


السلام معنا جميعا


Vrede met ons allemaal

La paix soit avec nous tous
Friede sei mit uns allen
Η ειρήνη να είναι μαζί μας
שלום עם כולנו
La pace sia con tutti noi

Fred være med oss ​​alle

Pokój z nami wszystkim

A paz esteja com todos nós

ਸ਼ਾਂਤੀ ਸਾਡੇ ਸਾਰਿਆਂ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਹੈ

Мир со всеми нами
La paz sea con todos nosotros

heddwch fyddo gyda ni oll

Barış hepimiz olsun


Sources & Further Reading: